The SPInDL knowledge representation language was conceived as a result of the observation of deficiencies of current KR languages / ontologies enumerated in the previous chapters, and consequently it delivers an alternative architecture that works around these deficiencies.

The first and probably most radical of all paradigms that SPInDL assumes, is the existence of the Common Reality. SPInDL does not create a reality, but rather it describes one. As a consequence, any object or fact that is being described with SPInDL it is assumed to predate the description and everything that is not described it is not assumed to be inexistent only not described. Because computers do not have the possibility to observe the common reality we humans share, the SPInDL common reality is considered to be, what has been identified in the paper as a direct binging of the human reality, the English Dictionary.

  • Example 28, Definition of the Person in the dictionary
1. An individual human being

At this level, the level of reality, there are no namespaces allowed and no fabrication of new words is allowed. Expressions that are multi word in English language, such as “first name” are allowed but only in the very form they appear in language “first name”, not “firstName” or any other combination that could suggest something different than the human expressions. To compensate for a lack or clarity that exists virtually in every language, homonyms, words that have multiple meanings, the first meaning will be assumed that the dictionary defines.

  • Example 29, Meaning of Person in the dictionary that may create confusion
2. An individual of specified character: a person of importance

The rest of the meanings will be substituted with appropriate expressions. In example: 29, such an expression could be “Public Figure”. The way these expressions are used however it is not defined. It will be at the latitude of the community (groups that use the meaning) to negotiate the appropriate expression when such moment occurs (see 2.12 Openness, Community driven model).